Common Acid Types for Industrial Process Applications

Below is a list of acids grouped into their acid types.  Generally, types of acids are grouped by their formulas, which directly relate acids because similar acid formulas have similar characteristics and chemical properties.  Acids are used in industrial acid process applications for many purposes.  Types of acids include carboxylic acids, nucleic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, vinylogous carboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, and mineral acids.


Carboxylic Acids:

  • Tartaric acid (HOOC-CHOH-CHOH-COOH)
  • Citric acid (C6H8O7)
  • Oxalic acid (HOOC-COOH)
  • Formic acid (HCOOH)
  • Gluconic acid HOCH2-(CHOH)4-COOH
  • Acetic acid (CH3COOH)
  • Lactic acid (CH3-CHOH-COOH)


Nucleic Acids:

  • Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)


Halogenated Carboxylic Acids:

  • Chloroacetic acid
  • Fluoroacetic acid
  • Dichloroacetic acid
  • Trichloroacetic acid
  • Trifluoroacetic acid


Vinylogous Carboxylic Acids:

  • Ascorbic acid


Sulfonic Acids:

  • Ethanesulfonic acid (or esylic acid, CH3CH2SO3H)
  • Polystyrene sulfonic acid (sulfonated polystyrene, [CH2CH(C6H4)SO3H]n)
  • Benzenesulfonic acid (or besylic acid, C6H5SO3H)
  • Methanesulfonic acid (or mesylic acid, CH3SO3H)
  • p-Toluenesulfonic acid (or tosylic acid, CH3C6H4SO3H)
  • Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (or triflic acid, CF3SO3H)


Mineral Acids:

  • Phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
  • Fluoroantimonic acid (HSbF6)
  • Hydroiodic acid (HI)
  • Hypochlorous acid (HClO)
  • Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
  • Fluorosulfuric acid (HSO3F)
  • Chlorous acid (HClO2)
  • Chloric acid (HClO3)
  • Perchloric acid (HClO4)
  • Hydrofluoric acid (HF)
  • Nitric acid (HNO3)
  • Fluoroboric acid (HBF4)
  • Hexafluorophosphoric acid (HPF6)
  • Chromic acid (H2CrO4)
  • Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
  • Hydrobromic acid (HBr)
  • Boric acid (H3BO3)